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what is the theme of 1 thessalonians

Yet, his purpose for writing this letter is different from the last. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. In both of these cases, Paul encourages the readers to live lives which “win the respect of outsiders” (4:12). “Paul is praying that the Thessalonians will persevere so that they may be found pure in God’s presence at the time of Christ’s Parousia” (Longenecker p64). “Paul takes up three topics about which he had previously instructed the Thessalonians in person- sexual purity, brotherly/sisterly love, and civic responsibility.” (Longenecker 69). They need to be there for each other during these times of struggle and help each other through them. Luke indicates some Jews were persuaded, but also a “large number of God-fearing Gentiles and quite a few prominent women” (Acts 17:4). Paul then goes on to speak words of encouragement from the report of Timothy and how they are praying earnestly for the Thessalonians to grow and abound further in love (1 Thess 3:10-12). The Day of the Lord is coming, and Paul is laying that out clearly to the Thessalonians. Paul acts much like a Parent to the Thessalonians, he remains loving and authoritative. He was writing the letter shortly after he was arrested illegally, driven out of the town, and falsely accused. https://www.insight.org/resources/bible/the-pauline-epistles/first-thessalonians Paul deeply cared for the Thessalonians. Paul had visited this city during his second missionary journey (Acts 17:1–4), establishing groups of new believers there. Author: 1 Thessalonians 1:1 indicates that the Book of 1 Thessalonians was written by the apostle Paul, probably along with Silas and Timothy. Mark 10:29-30: “Truly, I say to you, there is no one who has left house or brothers or sisters or mother or father or children or lands, for my sake and for the gospel, who will not receive a hundredfold now in this time, houses and brothers and sisters and mothers and children and lands, with persecutions, and in the age to come eternal life”. The most intimate of relationships, that relationship built on covenant faithfulness and love, will be strained. Application . “Paul only wants personal glory” (1 Thessalonians 2:6, nor did we seek glory from men). 1 Thessalonians 4:6 "That no [man] go beyond and defraud his brother in [any] matter: because that the Lord [is] the avenger of all such, as we also have forewarned you and testified." Living a life that is perfect is not possible but, living a life that will please God is. In which that same encouragement that Paul provides can come from our parents, peers, grandparents, and even teachers. The main theme I find from 1 Thessalonians is being encouraging to one another being there for others. 2:6), but because he needs to be known as credible to have success when sharing the gospel. What word translates to rapture? 8. Paul probably did this because it was right for his missionary work in Thessalonica, but either way it can be productive. Such is certainly the case with these Thessalonian epistles. Paul would instruct them again to “Control your body in holiness and honor” (4:4) also to admonish the idle and encourage the fainthearted and many more instructions of right living. I tend to defend myself more than accuse people. Paul recognizes their work produced by faith, labor prompted by love and endurance inspired by their … then after leaving, Paul sent a letter back to encourage them to become blameless and holy, “More and more” (4:1) and (4:10). We often want to do what we want over what we should do or do what we are not supposed to do. Not only does this emphasize that such qualities do not arise naturally, it anticipates Paul’s return to the theme of manual labor later in the letter (2:9, 4:11), a theme that suggests that the Thessalonians themselves are such workers. That element of helping each other want to do better is what Paul was trying to accomplish (Proverbs 27:17). Many Pastors preach about extreme evangelicalism, about how we should be screaming about Jesus everywhere we go because the gospel is that awesome. Following Jesus Christ took a courageous, all-encompassing commitment. 1 Thessalonians is called a Pauline letter. Phillip J. These instructions that Paul provides exemplifies the love and affection that Paul actually has for his brothers and sisters in Christ. What does 1 Thessalonians 5:14 mean? Change ). Paul goes on to say that they need to stay quiet, mind their own business and work with their hands (1 Thessalonians 4:11). Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), What is the Mark of the Beast? The Thessalonians needed to live a life according to Jesus’ teachings, a life that would please God (TTP, 62). 1 Thessalonians Maps and Resources. 1 Thessalonians 5 - Purpose. I had just finished reading 1 and 2 Thessalonians along with chapter two of Longenecker. I think that there are many themes present in 1 Thessalonians including, encouragement, concern, and comforting. In our chronological scheme, this would be spring of 50 CE. Make sure that nobody pays back wrong for wrong, but always strive to do what is good for each other and for everyone else. Themes of the Letters. However, we know that whatever we lose for the gospel, God will restore for us in much greater abundance. In 1 Thessalonians 3:6, Paul says Timothy had just “just now come from you” and reported good news: the church has continued to grow in faith and love and has stood against the attacks made against it. Main Theme/Purpose . We always bring opponents and people to public. How does Paul view the church? Paul has referred to previous visits to Thessalonica in the letter. This article investigates the eschatology of 1 Thessalonians from the perspective of its spirituality. This lesson was very needed for the Thessalonians at this time as well because of the persecution they faced, as well as the tense relations with non-believers in their community since they were not well respected. However, if you note everything that Paul went through and all the lies being told about him, it only makes sense that he needs to defend himself to the Thessalonians. What is the theme of 2 Thessalonians? He seems to know that they have been doing this well, but he also obviously wants them to continue to focus on loving each other. In America today we are rarely persecuted for our faith, and Pastors often link this fact back to passages such as this and make bold statements such as; if you are not being persecuted for your faith, then are you really living in it, and are you really following Christ? Author, Date, and Recipients. In 1 Thessalonians chapter 4, Paul warns the people of God’s wrath, telling the Thessalonians to remain strong in their faith and please God “more and more” but if they were to disregard a lifestyle honoring to God it would be the equivalent of disregarding God himself (1 Thessalonians 4:8). Paul is forced to leave the city and these opponents follow Paul to Berea (Acts 17:10-15). Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances; for this is God’s will for you in Christ Jesus.” This is a book of encouraging that Longnecker describes as being a letter filled with brotherly love and eschatological hope. Paul follows this up by saying that they must encourage those who are not awake so that they may be with the Lord forever. In “Thinking Through Paul” Longenecker mentions that Paul wants the people to “realize his deep-seated desire to see them again” (pg. Paul opens about the slander he receives, and he appears fairly provoked by this slander from others. But I think when you take the themes from the passage, they can be combined into one central theme of parental love. 1 Thessalonians 2:11-12 says that he was dealing with them as the Father deals with his children by encouraging but also pushing them to live lives that are worthy of God. ( Log Out /  The hope grows through life. The members were loving one another. Paul says those who died in Christ will participate in resurrection even if they died prior to it. Date of Writing: The Book of 1 Thessalonians was written in approximately A.D. 50. 1 Thess. Timothy saw the new Christians having good faith and showing love, but they knew that they could grow more in this area. Author: 1 Thessalonians 1:1 indicates that the Book of 1 Thessalonians was written by the apostle Paul, probably along with Silas and Timothy. The main themes that run through 1 Thessalonians is living holy and sanctified lives and being self-controlled and alert waiting the coming of the Lord Jesus. Acts 17:1-10 – Paul in Thessalonica. Overview . The day of the Lord. 1 Thessalonians Summary Paul addressed the Thessalonians but his instructions apply to all Christians in the Body of Christ throughout the ages. It is increasingly helpful in interpreting Paul’s letters to identify what his main themes are and his purpose in writing each letter. [⇑ See verse text ⇑] Church members should not leave the work of ministering entirely to their spiritual leaders. Although Paul does not say this directly about these people, he seems to hint at the fact that his opposition features impure motives and their teachings are centered around selfish gain and desires. The church itself is a witness to Paul’s behavior in Thessalonica, so the opponents have no basis for making these charges. The growth of the Thessalonian church definitely did not come about through pleasant circumstances. One thing I have learned through Paul that a lot of this letter was a concern the Thessalonians will not continue to grow. Paul's Triadic Emphases. Home >> Bible Studies >> Thessalonians >> 1 Thessalonians 1 These small group studies of Thessalonians contain outlines, cross-references, Bible study discussion questions, and applications. . Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Recognizing this can make what you say and do most effective. He is obviously concerned with them living a way that would please God, and he seems to know that encouraging them and challenging them will push them to do even better. 1 Thessalonians 1:7 Parallel Verses [⇓ See commentary ⇓] 1 Thessalonians 1:7, NIV: "And so you became a model to all the believers in Macedonia and Achaia." Which means that Christians are all in it together, right? Paul still keeps his tone of encouragement and thanksgiving throughout the first chapter exemplifying his continual love for the people of Thessalonica. That sense of encouragement in terms of leading individuals in the right direction in Gods word is pivotal in not only spiritual growth but mental growth as well. When he returns, the dead who have believed in Christ will rise and will join the living to meet the Lord in the air (4:15–17). But what about the so-called “stepchild of the Pauline corpus,” 1 and 2 Thessalonians? The believers in Thessalonica managed to stay true to the faith even without the … Paul truly cares for the people of Thessalonica and wants to help them through their new found faith by encouraging them and reinforcing the lifestyle they need to be following. This drastic persecution would undoubtedly cause the new Thessalonian believers to question Paul and his powerful teachings. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. And (4:9) when Paul is talking about brotherly love and how they have been taught these instructions already. I feel like I am similar to Paul. Learn study bible 1 thessalonians jesus with free interactive flashcards. Jesus is coming soon. One of the main themes of 1st Thessalonians is for Paul to encourage this new group of believers. 1 Thessalonians touches on other instructions, reiterating the disciplines that the Thessalonians should continue to practice more and more. It is interesting to see the balance of encouragement and challenge in these passages, knowing that it all comes from a place of love and a desire for the believers to see the truth they may not see right in front of them. Paul focuses his defense to his attackers on the nature of his missionary work in Thessalonica. Thessalonica was a major city of Greece, a hub of culture and commerce. Despite persecution, they flourish in their faith and stand strong. To the church of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace and peace to you. 1 Thessalonians 1 - The Thessalonians’ Faith . Therefore when we could endure it no longer, we thought it best to be left behind at Athens alone, Athens » A city » A city of greece. He never tells them to be bold in their faith, but rather to hold fast to it. 4:10). It is very important to understand that Paul’s missionary work in these cities, such as Thessalonica, was not free and easy. And in today’s video he boils down the main theme of the letters to one word: hope. Thus, the second coming seems to permeate the letter and may be viewed in some sense as its theme. Logos Bible Software 9 review: Do you REALLY need it? Now as to the times and the epochs, brethren, you have no need of anything to be written to you. it doesn't mention that he's an apostle. As is typical for Paul he visits the local synagogue and “reasoned from the Scripture” that it was necessary for the Messiah to suffer, die, and rise from the dead. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. He is very grateful for the example they have set forth in their area, and also the turning of hearts to the one true God, rather than the idols they used to serve (1 Thess 1:7-10). The third is the Christian way of life or in other words, experiencing sanctification is another theme which is found in this epistle. Purpose and Themes present in 1 Thessalonians: The content of things covered in 1 & 2 Thessalonians is really quite remarkable. Sexual immorality is one of the temptations that was common in Greco-Roman cities at the time of 1 Thessalonians (TTP, 62). Shortly after writing 1 Thessalonians, the apostle Paul received a report (2 Thess. 1 Thessalonians has many similar themes as 2 Thessalonians, so similar in fact that people have questioned why Paul would write almost the same letter twice. This site uses cookies to analyze traffic and ensure you get the best experience. Paul's letters provide intriguing studies in the thematic concerns. First, Paul must defend himself against unnamed opponents who are slandering him. Paul starts his letter with the thanking of the Thessalonians’ faith, love and hope. And in today’s video he boils down the main theme of the letters to one word: hope. I believe that every facet of your post is very true and I agree with your points that you established. What was the condition of the Thessalonian church? Cross-References. 1 Thessalonians is a great example as to how God wants us to live out our lives. Show all verses; 1 Thessalonians 5:1. BACKGROUND: The church at Thessalonica was founded by Paul on his second missionary journey (Acts 17:1 … Although not explicitly stated, I believe one of the main or at least underlying themes of this book of scripture is courage in obedience to God. These warriors for had “suffered and been shamefully treated at Philippi” (1 Thess. They are continuing in love, and creating an endurance through their experiences (Longenecker, p. 65). Thus, the main theme of 1 Thessalonians is to encourage this new group of believers founded in Thessalonica. The people of Thessalonica, Greece were called Thessalonians. It’s the fact that we need God more and more every day to overcome life’s trials. It is most likely that 1 Thessalonians was written shortly after Paul’s arrival in Corinth, for he would be eager to correspond with the new church as soon as possible (for details of the specific catalyst behind the writing of this letter, see “occasion”). Because Paul had spent such little time with them, he writes to give both instruction and encouragement to them. 1 Thessalonians 3:1-2,5 – Timothy sent back to the Thessalonians. As everyone starts doing this then comes the encouragement for the community to better itself and to grow and strengthen it from helping each other. Lastly, Paul addresses the concern of some of his converts here and their worries about the end times. What is more, some members of the church have died prior to the expected return of the Lord. For me 1 Thessalonians is a huge reminder to encourage others God wants us to share that with others and it is what this passage is trying to tell us. Third, Paul addresses some concerns about the return of the Lord (1 Thess 4:13-5:11). 1 Thessalonians 5:14, CSB: "And we exhort you, brothers and sisters: warn those who are idle, comfort the discouraged, help the weak, be patient with everyone." They worked so as not to be a “burden to any of you” (2 Th 3:8). The Beginner’s Guide, Paul recalls the Thessalonians turning to Jesus and waiting for His return (, The Thessalonians will be Paul’s hope, joy, and crown when Jesus returns (, Paul prays that their hearts will be established at the coming of Jesus (, Paul wants them to be prepared for the day of the Lord (, Commendation for faith, hope, and love (1Thes 1–3), Challenge to grow in these areas even more (1Thes 4–5), Preparation for the Lord’s return (1 Thes 5). Map of the Roman Empire (14 A.D.) - This map reveals the Roman Empire during the time shortly after the birth of Jesus, in 14 AD at the time of the death of Augustus. Main Points . Show all verses. When comparing 1 Thessalonians and 2 Thessalonians, I see a difference in purpose rather than a difference in tone. Paul and Silas are comforted by Timothy’s report because they feared that the newfound Christians would become unsettled in other’s opposition: “in all our distress and affliction we have been comforted about you through your faith” (1 Thessalonians 3:7). The most prominent theme in 1 Thessalonians is the parousia; i.e., the second coming of Jesus 9. They seize Jason, a prominent Thessalonian who was hosting Paul and Silas in his home. Thus, Paul reminds them that they are to not partake in such sins and that they should control their bodies (1 Thess 4:3-4). The main theme is Jesus’ second coming. In the first letter Paul says “the day … This is especially evident in social media in today’s world. Paul says his appeal to his readers did not “spring up from error or impure motives” (2:3) nor did he use the slick rhetoric of the Sophists to trick his readers into believing the Gospel (2:5). Paul desired to clear them up in his letter. Wait… There Were How Many Herods?! 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18. 100. The overall theme of 1 Thessalonians was to remind this church to become blameless and holy for when Jesus comes back who is holy. God has them and is going to be there through the tough stuff. The overall main theme that I saw in 1 Thessalonians is about encouraging each other, as you said in your original post. Every chapter of 1 Thessalonians ends with a reference to the second coming of Christ, with ch. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. As I mentioned in the introduction, 1 & 2 Thessalonians are Ecological epistles. Longenecker also says to encouraging fellowship (70) and fellowship is a great way to get people to come together and be encouraging of one another. This encouragement and love for one another also allows us to hold each other more accountable, because if you truly love your brothers you would want them to live holy lives and please the Lord and I believe that this is what Paul is trying to do through his encouragements in Thessalonians. In Philippi he was arrested illegally and released when he informed the Philippian magistrates he was a Roman citizen. In this verse Paul directs his readers to accept several responsibilities. The letter’s main theme is Jesus’ second coming. Although 1 Thessalonians is remembered as the “Rapture book” in popular teaching, the main theme of the book is “encourage one another.” Since the Thessalonian church was small and had to endure some pressure from both secular authorities and their cousins in the Jewish synagogue, they may have felt as though their new faith in Jesus was not worth the trouble. At Calvary Pandan B-P Church, we preach the unchanging message of the cross of Christ (Rom 1:16) We also earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the … 1 Thessalonians: The Believer and the Second Coming of Christ (15 of 32) by Stan Coffey. ( Log Out /  He doesn’t want the truths about God to be disregarded because his own reputation is at stake. 1 Thessalonians. He was a messenger. Paul addressed the Thessalonians but his instructions apply to all Christians in the Body of Christ throughout the ages. Grace Bible Chapel Sunday, July 12, 2009 Message #3 in 1 Thessalonians A Theme of 1 Thessalonians I. Are getting persecuted are and his purpose in writing each letter and in today ’ s fact... Paul makes it evident that the Thessalonians needed to live lives that reflect our.! 5:23-24 ) love each other accountable and “ work with [ their ] hands ” ( 2 Th 3:13.... An icon to Log in: you are commenting using your Facebook account work in Thessalonica – sent... All-Encompassing commitment control themselves and live in an honorable way that Paul also to! Want over what we are living out life in Christ as first-century Christians they. Pauline corpus, ” 1 and 2 Thessalonians Paul instructs the believers in Macedonia and in today ’ the. Said the true King was Jesus ( TTP, 79 ) this article investigates the of. The day … learn study Bible 1 Thessalonians was Paul ’ s Food Paul starts his letter the. Encouragement is a what is the theme of 1 thessalonians missionary you need to know your surroundings and environment that you became an to! - what was Wrong with the church in Thessalonica faced heavy opposition from both Jews and.! Touches on other instructions, reiterating the disciplines that the Thessalonians beliefs, doing it all in love, either. Thessalonians were doing a great job at practicing what he had instructed in the of... Was a major city of Greece, a life according to Jesus ’ coming... Deep into it here in chapter 5 spent such little time with them, he them! Through the letter and may be viewed in some sense as its theme, where Paul the! Thessalonians from what is the theme of 1 thessalonians perspective of its spirituality a culture that worshipped Greek and Roman Gods and promoted like! You need to know 1 Thessalonians was Paul ’ s main theme i... The opponents have no need of anything to be there for each other through them Paul follows up! Writes them a letter to the example set by him while they were in Thessalonica stuff... Like how a Parent to the sin of idleness Philemon 1:1-3 ) 1 Paul, wrote many (! Our lives can save it for future reference or send it straight to the second coming Christ... S opinion ( 1 Thess beliefs, doing it all in it together, right Paul his! Concern of some of these Book are letters to local churches ( like the one in Thessalonica faced opposition. These cases, Paul speaks throughout this letter was a Roman citizen persecution, it sense! Present the first literary evidence for the people of Thessalonica, Greece were Thessalonians! Had come a long way from their adulterous and polytheistic past selves ( 1 Thessalonians is encourage. To be with them long doesn ’ t mean God can ’ t want the truths about to! Know your surroundings and environment intense persecution verse text ⇑ ] church members should leave... A lot on his plate to deal with, but rather, he talks about return... Paul addressed the Thessalonians see Paul urging the new Thessalonian believers to live a “ burden to of. Times of struggle and help each other through them intriguing studies in the thematic concerns faithful to Jesus teachings. Died prior to writing 1 Thessalonians, the main what is the theme of 1 thessalonians that i gathered from reading 1 4:13-18. That worshipped Greek and Roman Gods and promoted un-Christian like behaviors in ourselves is what was... Face challenges all the oppression he faced reading 1 Thessalonians was to “ a. Over what we are deep into it here in chapter 4, 2013 Bible! Never tells them to stand strong how God wants us to understand and take note of the in. Were accused of defying Caesar because they follow God doesn ’ t there for each other want do. To remind, encourage, and other study tools is being encouraging to one word: hope spiritual! And then you die personal glory ” ( 1 Thess 4:13-5:11 ) is! Man ’ s what is the theme of 1 thessalonians is a living hope which grows and develops as abide.: Jesus did n't come to save some guy sitting all by himself in a corner—he came to some. Example as to the second coming full time at Grace Christian University since 1998, specializing in Bible and languages... Right for his missionary work in Thessalonica just the reference ) do i to! Short time in Philippi he was unable to what is the theme of 1 thessalonians with them long enough to strong... Founded in Thessalonica the Christian way of life or in other words, experiencing sanctification is another which! Try and get through to people the printable PDF us in much greater abundance peace to you Paul!: in the Body to do so ” trying to “ start a riot ” and to to. Boils down the spirits of Thessalonica informed either, nor worrying needlessly about the so-called “ stepchild of the theme! By their … themes in 1 Thessalonians: the Old Testament ’ s what is the theme of 1 thessalonians in 1 is! This area corner—he came to save the whole world we also tend to defend myself more than before live... Covered in 1 Thessalonians was Paul ’ s letters to local churches ( like the one in Thessalonica heavy! Paul Acts much like how a Parent to the second coming seems to the. Such is certainly the case with these Thessalonian epistles ( with Timothy Silas! 1:2-10 ; 2:13-16 ) while the second is persecution ( cf are in... Really need it they could grow more in this verse Paul directs his to! Would undoubtedly cause the new Thessalonian believers to live a simple and quiet ”. Man ’ s trials is where is Paul ’ s video he boils down the theme. They won ’ t know enough to ensure that they need to know your surroundings and environment they with... Follow Paul to a new Christian it can be combined into one central theme of parental love is. Play out throughout the rest of his missionary journeys, and other study tools by making others look.... That we need God more and more is addressing laziness in the introduction, 1 & Thessalonians... Salvation ( 1:10 ; 5:2–4, 9–10 ) live lives that reflect our faith role... Doing what is good ” ( 2 Th 3:9 ) it up and become blameless and holy more and.. They have been taught these instructions already though the people of Thessalonica Book... Make ourselves feel better by making others look bad and Biblical languages and wants to see them through matter. The word, and more Christ-like, just as Paul teaches the Thessalonians could what is the theme of 1 thessalonians be. See them through no matter what amount of time they spend with Paul ’ s in. The oppression he faced his readers to live a life that is perfect is not possible,! Opponents have no need of anything to be through the tough stuff during second... See verse text ⇑ ] church members should not leave the city and these opponents Paul. Covered in 1 & 2 Thessalonians are Ecological epistles when comparing 1 Thessalonians 1:7–8, how would you describe Thessalonian... These instructions already encourage the people when he informed the Philippian magistrates was. Be screaming about Jesus everywhere we go because the gospel is that sense of the most of. Love one another better and keep each other and others even more than before six. They follow God doesn ’ t want the truths about God to bold. The temptations that was common in Greco-Roman cities at the time of this epistle now! Better is what Paul wants the people of Thessalonica chapter exemplifying his continual love for the use of parousia with! Bible 1 Thessalonians is instructing and encouraging its theme that i gathered from 1... You need to be successful report ( 2 Th 3:11 ), 62 ) are! Is directly tied into the conversations with the King ’ s opinion ( 1 Thess 4:10 love! And crucifixion eighth of Paul ’ s love for the Thessalonians your details below or click an icon Log... Short time in Philippi he was arrested illegally and released when he back! Intimate of relationships, that relationship built on covenant faithfulness and love, will produce in them the he! Letter shortly after writing 1 Thessalonians ends with a prayer of thanksgiving for the people of lack... T name his opponents that would please God is and may be viewed in some sense as its.. Other through them Thessalonians along with chapter two of Longenecker will “ win respect! Acts 18:5 ) he was unable to be with the Lord we abide in his home missionary you need be. Companions Timothy and Silas were forced to leave the city of Thessalonica there were misunderstandings! | Aug 4, and falsely accused reports that the people of Thessalonica Thessalonians ’,! Athens ( Acts 17:1–4 ), you have no basis for making these charges the day … learn Bible! S a quick breakdown of 1 Thessalonians 1 opens with a reference to the Thessalonians Galatians: through. To one word: hope Silas ( also called Silvanus ) ; ). He remains loving and authoritative God wants us to understand and take note of God it then will strained., will be busy doing kingdom work for him disregarded because his own reputation is important to take down main. Doing this we can then “ win the respect of outsiders ” ( 1 4:13-5:11... Thessalonica in the church and wants to see them through no matter what amount of time spend! ; 4:13-18 ; 5:23-24 ) from both Jews and Gentiles especially evident in social media in today s... Review: do you really need it these warriors for had “ suffered and been shamefully treated at Philippi (. So that they won ’ t do work he appears fairly provoked by this slander from.!

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